Tag Archives: environment

A tale of two eco-cities: experimentation under hierarchy in Shanghai and Tianjin

Miao, Bo and Graeme Lang. (2014) A tale of two eco-cities: experimentation under hierarchy in Shanghai and Tianjin. Urban Policy and Research. Prepublished December, 3, 2014. DOI: 10.1080/08111146.2014.967390

Two ambitious ‘new city’ projects were launched in China during the past 15 years—the ‘Dongtan eco-city’ project in Shanghai and the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City project in Tianjin. Both have received much international publicity and attention. However, the Dongtan project has stalled, and will evidently not be revived, while the Tianjin project continues, albeit with more moderate goals. We analyse the two cases, using the concept of ‘experimentation under hierarchy’ to show why one project is proceeding, while the other has failed. The key factors were strong international inputs of expertise and funds in the Tianjin project, along with crucial support from the central government, both of which were lacking in the Dongtan project.

近15 年来,中国搞了两个宏大的“新城”计划,一个是上海东滩生态城,一个是中国与新加坡合资的天津生态城。这两项工程都在国际上造出了许多舆论,也得到许多关 注。然而,东滩项目半途而废,显然不会再度启动,目标比较温和的天津项目倒是一直在进行。本文用“科层制度下的实验”这一概念,分析这两个案例,说明为何 一个项目得以延续,另一个却以失败告终。我们认为关键因素是天津项目有强大的国际专家团队和国际资金投入,而且,关键是得到了中央政府的支持,而这些因素 东滩项目都没有。

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Monique Abud

Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine, EHESS, Paris, France

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Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming

soupecanardJenna Hua, Edmund Seto, Yan Li and May C Wang, (2014) Development and canardsetlegumesevaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China, BMC Public Health 2014, 14:235  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-235


Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China.

We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city.

273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight.

The prevalence of overweight Chinese adolescents, and the food environments they are exposed to, deserve immediate attention. To our knowledge, these are the first food environment surveys developed specifically to assess changing food availability, accessibility, and pricing in China. These instruments may be useful in future systematic longitudinal assessments of the changing food environment and its health impact in China.

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Photo credit: J. Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Chinese urban planning: environmentalising a hyper-functionalist machine?

Curien, Rémi. (2014) Chinese urban planning : environmentalising a hyper-functionalist machine? China Perspectives [Online], 2014/3. Connection on 16 September 2014. URL : http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/6528.

How should the considerable discrepancy between the concepts of sustainable urban development proclaimed by the Chinese authorities and the reality on the ground be understood? This article examines the urban planning procedures that currently hold sway in China. The building of new cities is based upon a generic method of hyper-productivist and functionalist planning, reflected as a pyramid structure that extends over the whole country and is embodied by urban zoning on a vast scale. This procedure, which has been in force for nearly 30 years, is not at present one that is called into question by Chinese decision-makers, and does not take environmental principles seriously into account. Conversely, all of the reasoning upon which urban development is based remains very far removed from environmental considerations. China is continuing down the road of accelerated development behind the wheel of a growing hyper-functionalist urban machine.

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Monique Abud

Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine, EHESS, Paris, France

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Signal Tree

Travelling in China, you may see a particularly tall tree on a mountain or in a park; its colour is similar to other trees around it. But when you move and look closer and touch this tree, the texture does not feels like tree bark but a plastic surface. It is actually a signal tree, the telecom operators’ idea to preserve the natural landscape. So, signal towers are built in the shape of a tree. This is a construction unique to urban development in China.

signal tree

Image source:  gaomin.t.sohu.com

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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People’s Daily on how to achieve a win-win between China’s urbanisation and environmental protection



环境保护是新型城镇化的重点内容。习近平同志在今年党外人士座谈会上提出,要“积极稳妥推进城镇化……始终节约用地,保护生态环境”。国家新型城镇化 规划将“生态环境明显改善,空气质量逐步好转,饮用水安全得到保障”作为重要目标,并提出建立完善生态环境保护制度的任务措施。



吴晓青:中国环境保护从城市起步,改革开放以来取得很大进展。但城镇化的持续深入推进,为环保工作带来了新挑战,环境治理难度在加大。例如,传统的大 气煤烟型污染尚未得到解决, PM2.5、臭氧等新型污染问题又接踵而至;水量性缺水问题尚未得到根治,水质性缺水问题又进一步凸显;生产领域的环境问题 居高不下,消费升级带来的新型环境问题日益突出;传统污染防治问题尚未彻底解决,市民对优质生态产品的需求与对环境健康的关注迅速上升,环境质量改善与市 民预期差距较大;等等。

当前,中国城镇化处于由中期向后期发展的阶段,环境压力将持续加大且短期内难以缓解。预计到2020年中国城镇化率将提升至60%,而城镇化率每提高 1个百分点,将增加城镇人口1300万左右。中国每年增加生活垃圾520万吨左右、生活污水11.5亿吨、多消耗8000万吨标煤。未来中小城镇发展还可 能导致不同区域、城市群间由隔离式的“碎片污染”转为“连片污染”,环境保护将面临更大挑战。






吴晓青:解决这些问题,需要深刻认识环境资源的基础性作用,补短板、强基础、提质量,努力将城镇的发展规模、发展方式、开发强度控制在生态系统和环境资源可承受的范围之内。 补短板,就是向污染宣战,出重拳,用重典,切实解决好关系群众健康的城镇灰霾、水体黑臭、土壤污染等重点问题,让长期超负荷的城镇内河水体、大气环境得到休养生息,大幅提高城镇生态产品、环境公共服务的供给水平。





建立健全城市环境总体规划。城市环境总体规划是“十二五”环保规划提出的一项重要任务和基本制度。总体规划以提升环境服务功能为目标,以生态保护红 线、环境质量底线、环境资源上线等为抓手,为城市建设、资源开发和环境保护提供先导性、基础性依据。目前环境保护部组织的城市环境总体规划试点顺利,下一 步需要扩大试点范围、完善管理制度,提高执行力,加强与城市总规、土地总规及经济发展规划的衔接融合,力促多规融合、一张蓝图干到底。

建立健全城镇建设、重大产业发展、产业园区规划环评体系。将规划环评作为推进新型城镇化的重要手段,强化执行力度。严格控制“两高一资”、产能过剩行 业低水平建设,对环境质量不能满足功能区划要求的项目限制审批。完善城镇环境质量标准、污染物排放标准,推进重点行业清洁生产和提标改造。进一步推进落实 重点区域火电、钢铁、石化、水泥、有色、化工等六大行业以及燃煤锅炉执行大气污染物特别排放限值。强化城镇环境问题诊断、环境资源承载力监测评估等领域科 研突破。支持企业技术减排与环保技术创新,促进产业绿色化、清洁化。

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Low carbon eco-city: new approach for Chinese urbanisation

Li, Yu (2014). Low carbon eco-city: new approach for Chinese urbanisation. Habitat International, 44 (October), p. 102–110. Pre-published June, 6, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.05.004

Chinese urbanisation is occurring rapidly but faces great challenges due to its large population, the continuing level of rural–urban migration, the shortage of resources to support the present development and the urbanisation model. One result is that China is the world’s largest carbon emitter. The application of low carbon eco-city development should be contribute to the solution in addressing these challenges. This paper attempts to explore the low carbon eco-city initiatives in China. By analysing critically the problems which impact upon such an environmentally friendly development model, including government policy, social value and delivery mechanisms, this paper suggests that despite problems in implementing such a model, the low carbon eco-city model must be the mainstream approach to Chinese urbanisation and industrialisation.


Monique Abud

Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine, EHESS, Paris, France

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Sustainable automobility: understanding the car as a natural system

Nieuwenhuis, Paul (2014). Sustainable automobility:  understanding the car as a natural system. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar. 208 p. ISBN: 978 1 78347 267 3 (hardback) and 978 1 78347 268 0 (ebook).

783472673If we are part of nature, then so is everything we make. This  book explores this notion using the example of the car, how it is made and used and especially how we relate to it, with a view to creating a more sustainable automobility.

We have been trying to make cars cleaner and more efficient, but has this really made them more sustainable? This book argues, within the context of sustainable consumption and production, that we should see the car as a natural system, subject to natural laws and processes. As part of this new perspective we need to change our attitude to cars, building more durable relationships and co-evolving with them. Revolutionary, perhaps; but if we get it right, this approach will allow us to enjoy motoring – albeit in modified form – into the future. The book draws on a range of disciplines, including industrial ecology, engineering, philosophy, anthropology, consumer psychology and object-oriented ontology, as well as providing industry examples to support its innovative case.

Monique Abud

Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine, EHESS, Paris, France

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The city of Suzhou rewarded for its best practices in sustainable urbanisation

The city of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, won the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize 2014 for its demonstration of sound planning principles and good urban management.

The Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize is co-organised by the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Singapore and the Centre for Liveable Cities. It aims to honour cities which tackle urban challenges through good governance and innovation. The prize places an emphasis on practical and cost effective solutions and ideas in order to facilitate the sharing between cities accross the world of best practices in urban solutions and sustainable urban development.

Suzhou has undergone remarkable transformation over the past two decades. The significance of its transformation lies in the city’s success in meeting the multiple challenges of achieving economic growth in order to create jobs and a better standard of living for its people; balancing rapid urban growth with the need to protect its cultural and built heritage; and coping with a large influx of migrant workers while maintaining social stability.

For more information, see the web-page of the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize.

Oriane Pillet

Intern at the CNRS, UrbaChina project. M.A. in urban local development (IEDES, Paris); M.A. in international development studies (Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris - Utrecht University); B.A. in geography and law (Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris).

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International conference on environment, health, and media

Environment and health are two major issues that affect our well-being. In recent decades, educators, communicators, policy makers, and public health professionals have increasingly recognized the powerful role of the media in our understanding and decision making about environment and health. It shapes us about which environmental issues are important, what kinds of products and services will improve our environment and health status, and which policies will be able to solve environment and health problems. The proposed conference will advance our research frontier on the interplay of media, environment and health choices.

Objectives and Themes

The objectives of the conference are

  • To bring together international scholars, educators and industry practitioners to share ideas about theories and practices to promote responsible environmental and health behaviours
  • To bring different academic disciplines together to share theoretical insights and empirical evidence of current issues in media and health as well as environment. Scholars can represent a variety of disciplines including communication, marketing, anthropology, sociology, psychology, education, environmental science, public health, linguistics, and cultural studies.

Specifically, topics for this conference shall include (but are not restricted to)

  • Environmental news reporting
  • Environmental framing and media discourse
  • Environmental promotion campaigns
  • Food advertising and promotions among adolescents
  • Food and consumer culture
  • Social construction of beauty
  • Culture and health
  • Young people’s media production on health issues
  • Public health campaigns
  • Creativity in health messages
  • Doctor patients communication
  • Media and health education

Organizing Committee (list of members)

  • Prof. Kara Chan (Chair) Department of Communication Studies
  • Dr. Judy Siu (Member)  David C. Lam Institute for East-West Studies
  • Dr. Dong Dong (Member)  David C. Lam Institute for East-West Studies
  • Mr. Lennon Tsang (Member) Department of Communication Studies


January 5-7, 2015


School of Communication, Hong Kong Baptist University

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Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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The current dilemma and future path of China’s electric vehicles

Zhang, X.; Rao, R.; Xie, J.; Liang, Y. (2014). The current dilemma and future path of China’s electric vehicles. Sustainability, 6, 1567-1593. DOI:10.3390/su6031567 [Retrieved 24 March 2014]

China had set an ambitious development target of electric vehicles (EVs) to mitigate the environmental pollution. However, the actual situation of EVs far lagged behind the goals. This paper analyzes the elements impeding EVs’ development, which are identified into four contributors, including deficient EV subsidy policies, embarrassed EV market, local protectionism, and unmatched charging infrastructure. Based on the actual situation of China, this paper discusses corresponding policy suggestions and explores the alternative roadmap of EVs. In the initial development stage of EVs, it is important to select the appropriate charging mode for EVs according to different characteristics across users. Moreover, the development of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) may open the EV market faster than battery electric vehicle (BEV). In addition, the low-speed EVs may be a good choice for the rural market and should be well developed. With the promotion of EVs, China central and local governments should make rational policies to promote EVs’ development, which is the crucial force to drive the uptake of EVs.

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Monique Abud

Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine, EHESS, Paris, France

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History and future of urban ecology in China

Wu, Jianguo, Wei-Ning Xiang, Jingzhu Zhao (2014). Urban ecology in China: historical developments and future directions. Landscape and Urban Planning.  Prepublished March, 7, 2014, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.02.010

China has the largest population and the longest urban development history in the world, with primitive cities first occurring along the Yellow River in northern China more than 4000 years ago. After a long period of stagnation during recent centuries, urbanization has revived again in China since the economic reform in 1978. Strongly influenced by national land use policy and the history of urbanization after 1949, China’s urban ecology has gone through three development periods: the emergent period (1983–1989), the early growth period (1990–1999), and the rapid development period (2000–present). In this paper, we first provide a historical review of urbanization and urban ecology in China; based on this retrospective analysis, we further identify the main characteristics of, and missing links in, China’s urban ecological research; and finally we suggest future research directions. The amount and scope of research in urban ecology and environment conducted in China since the 1980s are impressive. Not only did Chinese scholars import Western ideas to develop urban ecological science, but also they have promoted a holistic, use-inspired, transdisciplinary philosophy for studying and managing urban systems – which has unique Chinese characteristics. After more than 5000 years of being predominantly agrarian, China is now urban, and will become only more urban in the future. This continued fast urbanization makes China a living laboratory for studying urbanization, and China’s urban ecology seems poised to make strides in the coming decades.

Read full text on Springer online (restricted access)


  • Wu, Jianguo, Chunyang He, Ganlin Huang and Deyong Yu (2013). Urban landscape ecology: past, present, and future. In B. Fu and K. B. Jones (eds.). Landscape ecology for sustainable environment and culture (pp.37-53). Dordrecht: Springer.
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Monique Abud

Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine, EHESS, Paris, France

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Chinese Journal of Urban and Environmental Studies (CJUES)

A new journal in urban and environmental studies, edited by Pan Jiahua, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Ni Pengfei (CAS and UrbaChina research team), is a member of the editorial board.

CJUESChinese Journal of Urban and Environmental Studies (CJUES) (ISSN 2345-7481 print /2345-752X online) is a peer-reviewed journal that seeks to publish high-quality research papers and book reviews to explore a wide range of academic and policy concerns of urban and environmental studies. CJUES publishes scholarly work with a special emphasis on the following fields:

  • theoretical and conceptual frameworks for urban and environmental studies
  • the trend of urban and environmental development in both China and international context
  • issues of urban studies, including urbanization, urban planning, urban form, urban problems, urban land use, urban transportation
  • issues of sustainability and environmental developments, including environmental protection, environmental policy, climate change
  • linkage between urban, environmental and other areas of social and economic policy
  • international comparison and developments

Table of contents (vol. 1, n° 1, December 2013)

Free access to all CJUES issues is provided until 31 March 2015
(registration online required)


Monique Abud

Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine, EHESS, Paris, France

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Urban forest in Shenyang

Green park in Shaoxing, Goulard SébastienThe Tijuca forest in the city of Rio de Janeiro is claimed to be the largest urban forest in the world. Maybe challengers to this title will come from China?

In a paper published in 2011, Liu Changfu and Li Xiaoma bring to light the importance of urban forests in carbon storage using the case of Shenyang1.

In Europe, some urban forests are several centuries old. They were first preserved to be used as gaming reserves for the nobility, and they then gained strategic and recreational purposes.

Urban forests also play a role in improving environment of cities. Several reforestation programs have been implemented with this objective; a notable example is the transformation of post-industrial sites into urban forests in Germany’s Ruhr.

Shenyang is a very industrial (and polluted) city of Northeast China where authorities have started to develop reforestation programmes. This article shows that this initiative needs to be continued.

The authors used satellite images of Shenyang and its surrounding to distinguish planted areas and the different varieties of trees, and then calculated the amount of carbon stored in several areas. In Shenyang, the carbon stored by the urban forests represents more than 3% of carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. As argued by the authors, more efforts can be pursued to increase the sire of urban forests, but these forests need to be better managed so that trees grow healthy and store more carbon. Forest managers should also pay more attention in planting native trees, which seem to be more efficient than other varieties, and need to preserve primitive forests when possible.

We can also state that protecting and managing forests should be an integral part of urban planning, global approach needs to be adopted.

  1. Liu Changfa & Li, Xiaoma (2011). Carbon storage and sequestration by urban forests in Shenyang, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol 11 (2), pp. 121-128 []

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE - Nottingham Trent University)

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Ecologie & politique 47 – Today’s political ecology in China

Écologie & politique 47, Les écologies politiques aujourd’hui (5) Chine (2013). Coordination: Jean-Paul Maréchal. Paris: Presse de Sciences Po


After thirty years of the economy growing at almost 10% per year, China is now faced with the challenge of environmental limits. Lakes, streams, the air, the soil are all affected. This degradation has sparked sometimes violent demonstrations from the people concerned, already in the tens of thousands every year. This report discusses how the environmental issue is making its way in the civil society and spheres of government of the Middle Kingdom.

Political Ecology in China [p.17]

Jean-Paul Maréchal

Summary – The purpose of this article is to highlight how three decades of sustained growth have resulted in a massive deterioration of the environment in China. The severity of pollution has lead to social discontent, which threatens the government’s legitimacy. Thus, a number of measures have been taken by the government to address the issue, but, given the scale of the challenge, these cannot yield results in the short term.

The Green Awakening of Chinese Society? [p.27]

Marie-Hélène Schwoob

Abstract – China’s current political transition raises questions about which path should the new leadership take in the process of reshaping relationships between the State and society. This evolution is made necessary by the moving frontiers of roles played by stakeholders, particularly in the field of environmental protection: from limited circles of environmental activism, encouraged as well as controlled by the government since the 1990s, the civil society is today moving towards more independent ways of demonstrating its environmental awareness, as recent events have shown. However, even after the fall of Bo Xilai—which led people to believe in a “victory” of the Guangdong’s liberalist model—vigorous debates opposing claims for reform and resilient conservatism are still taking place in China.

Nature Bursts into Canton. NGOs, State and Global Norms [p.39]

Monique Selim

Abstract – This article seeks to analyze the representations of nature and the practices related to these representations in contemporary China. It is based on an anthropological research conducted in Guangzhou, capital of the Guangdong province, a city rather opened to outside influences due to its proximity with Hong Kong and therefore rather less affected by the control of the party-state than the rest of the country. The author shows how small groups of environmentalists appear, and study the political relations that develop from this new tropism. Between the control of the party-state and the subversive logic that underlie the very idea of nature conservation, a very diverse rank of attitudes and conceptions showing the entrance of China into a global world can be grasped.

Ecology, Confucius and Democracy. A Critical Analysis of Chinese Rhetoric of « Ecological Civilization » [p.51]

Gwennaël Gaffric and Jean-Yves Heurtebise

Abstract – In the last past years, the catch-phrase “ecological civilization” flourished in China and became widely used by both academic and politicians. This article aims at addressing the underlying (philosophical and political) reasons of its growing use. We contend that this notion, based on a culturalist and nationalist interpretation of “traditional Chinese thought” (presented as the very antidote to “Western thought”), plays an instrumental role in China’s discursive strategy of power consisting in using Chinese philosophical textual tradition to support national and international interests. This paper’s goal is to critically analyze this discourse in order to rethink the fundamental relationship between ecopolitics and democracy.

Environmental Justice as Fairness. The Politicization of Environmental Conflicts in the Popular Republic of China [p.63]

Richard Balme

Abstract – This paper explores developments in environmental policy-making in China under the angle of environmental justice. While the extent of environmental damages and their social impacts are relatively well known, the political implications of environmental conflicts are less documented. The paper shows that the developments of legislation, collective action, public participation and litigation, served as converging factors to allow for some significant improvements in environmental policy-making procedures over the last decade. Although these innovation remained local, and far from reversing the general state of the environment in China, they introduced significant changes in the patterns of interaction among relevant policy stakeholders.

China’s Policy Responses to Climate Change [p.77]

Giulia C. Romano

Abstract – In the global warming issue, China now covers the record of the first world polluter. Moreover, by far the country has shown a reticent attitude towards the possibility of engaging in an international accord stipulating concrete targets for emissions reduction. But how could we explain the partial change occurred in Durban, where China finally accepted the EU-proposed “platform?” We try to answer this question by observing the internal context and asking another preliminary question: has China adopted a climate change policy? The answer seems to be positive.

The Challenge for China of Building a New Global Climate Regime [p.89]

Jean-Paul Maréchal

Abstract – This article evaluates China’s contribution to the global warming phenomenon and the role she can be expected to play in the future. It also analyzes Beijing’s attitude in the international negotiations concerning global climate change, in order to understand the difficulties to conceive and implement a “post-Kyoto” climate regime.

China and Green Technologies: A New Kind of Security Dilemma? [p.103]

Emmanuel Meneut

Abstract – The pollution and the high Chinese level of emitted greenhouse gas are a challenge for the Communist Party and the Chinese political regime. The internal challenge is coming from the consequences of pollution on the population and the large discontent it fuels. The external challenge is due to the international stage position of the first greenhouse gas producer and the second GDP of the world economy. This major challenge requires a structural change of the energy production and consumption of the country. As a consequence, China became one of the main actors of the energy transition through its two last five-year plans. The huge investment level in clean tech energy conversion chains is the translation of the Chinese political will. This situation creates tensions with Western countries.

For more information,see the official Écologie & Politique website (French).

Aurélia Martin

Chargée de communications et des médias pour l'UMR Chine Corée Japon (CNRS)

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