Tag Archives: China

The many forms of water security in China

Darrin Magee, The many forms of water security in China, China Policy Institute Blog, November 4, 2014.

By some measures, China is not a water-scarce country. Per capita water resources stood at just over 2,000 cubic meters in 2013 according to the National Bureau of Statistics, with overall water availability at nearly 2.8 trillion cubic meters. Yet these figures tell only part of the story. China’s seemingly sufficient water resources are severely polluted, unevenly distributed in space and time, inefficiently utilized, and increasingly diverted away from agriculture toward higher-value-added uses. Moreover, as the Chinese government moves forward on a path toward less reliance on carbon-based energy sources and greater use of non-hydro renewables like solar and wind, hydropower will almost certainly gain importance as a dispatchable electricity generation source that can balance the intermittent nature of solar and wind. Some of that hydropower will be developed on transboundary rivers in China’s southwest, further raising tensions with downstream neighbors already wary of China’s intentions.

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Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Strict crowd limits set for Beijing Lunar New Year celebrations in wake of Shanghai crush

Beijing authorities have set precise mathematical limits on allowable crowd densities for events during the Lunar New Year holiday after the government ordered increased safety precautions across the country in the wake of the deadly New Year’s Eve stampede in Shanghai.

Read more on The South China Morning Post 2015-02-12

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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“(un)civil society” and “Chinese internet or internet in China?”

The University of Alberta’s China Institute invites paper proposals for the 13th annual Chinese Internet Research Conference (CIRC) to be held in Edmonton, Canada on May 27-28, 2015. While following the CIRC tradition of welcoming a wide range of general submissions, this year’s conference will highlight the themes of “(un)civil society” and “Chinese internet or internet in China?”

(Un)civil Society

To date, much research on the Chinese Internet has focused on internet censorship as well as state-society confrontations. While these issues continue to hold importance, a new generation of research could help to unpack the multilayered and multidimensional reality and contradictions of the Chinese Internet. As the population of Chinese netizens has surpassed 600 million, not only has the Chinese internet become a contentious medium for the state and an emergent civil society, it has also given voice to controversial exchanges between various social groupings along ideological, class, ethnic, racial and regional fault lines. Some examples include the internet flame war between Han Han and Fang Zhouzi that defamed “public intellectuals” in China, the Left-Right debate amongst China’s intellectual communities that occasionally spill over into street brawls, online breach of privacy (e.g. certain instances of “human flesh search engine”), conflict between “haves” and “have-nots,” contention between Han and ethnic minorities in Tibet and Xinjiang, racial discourse on mixed-race Chinese and immigrants, and debate over the “sunflower movement” in Taiwan and the “umbrella movement” in Hong Kong. Papers on this theme will shed light on uncivil exchanges online that fail to produce consensus or solutions and the social/cultural/political schisms that complicate the promise of constructive citizen engagement and civil society in China. Conversely, papers that illustrate, analyze and reflect on overcoming incivility online, without curtailing citizens’ rights to speech, security and safety are also welcome.

Chinese Internet or Internet in China?

Papers on this theme could consider the extent to which internet applications and user patterns in China are unique or simply representative of global trends, with local variations in terms of technology use and the associated cultural meanings. They might also address the growing popularity of Chinese internet applications among users abroad. Put differently, how “unique” and how “Chinese” is the “Chinese internet?” Should we be talking about a “Chinese internet” or the “internet in China?” Comparative perspectives as well as the development of fresh theoretical angles are encouraged.

Papers may be submitted outside these two themes. Researchers are invited to submit proposals on any aspect of the development, use, and impact of the internet in China. Topics may include the economic, political, cultural, and social dimensions of internet use in China, may focus on interpersonal, organizational, international, or inter-cultural dimensions; and may explore theoretical, empirical, or policy-related implications.

Possible topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Internet business, entertainment, and gaming
  • Research methods, web metrics, “big data” analysis, and network analysis
  • The digital divide along class, gender and rural-urban lines
  • The globalization of such Chinese internet firms as Baidu, WeChat, and Alibaba
  • Cultural activities or cultural tensions expressed through such popular mediums as microblogs (weibo), and WeChat (weixin)

The China Institute will sponsor participants’ meals during the conference dates, but is unable to cover travel costs. A limited number of university accommodations are available at reduced rates on first-come-first-served basis. There is no registration fee for this conference. As in past years, top single-authored papers by graduate students will receive awards. Participants are also invited to join in a three-day, self-paid trip to the Canadian Rockies after the conference. Please submit paper proposals of no more than 400 words in length with the subject line of “CIRC proposal” by February 15, 2015 to esarey@ualberta.ca. Acceptance notices and panel information will be released in March 2015.

More information

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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What will happen to Uber in China?

Tea Leaf Nation 01.08.15

Ride-sharing app Uber has expanded around the world at a blistering pace, launching in a new city every one or two days. At first glance, China would appear the ideal fit for the Silicon Valley startup. Most urban residents in the world’s second-largest economy rely on sclerotic local taxi monopolies whose numbers have failed to match the country’s breakneck urbanization: the population of the capital Beijing, for example, has grown by nearly 50 percent to 20 million in the past ten years, while its taxi fleet of 66,000 remains the same size it was in 2003. The potential for a better way to get around town is clearly immense.

But on December 23, Uber suffered a setback when local authorities raided its office in the large southern city of Chongqing, a sign the company may encounter regulatory scrutiny in China similar to what it has encountered in other countries. Uber’s Chongqing travails initially appear to be yet another case in the recent string of large foreign firms finding themselves in the crosshairs of Chinese regulators—often to the benefit of domestic champions. It may come as a surprise, then, that Uber’s local competitors have come in for their share of official scrutiny as well.

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Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Chinas e cigarettes

David Barboza, China’s E-cigarette boom lacks oversight for safety, The New York Times, Dec. 13, 2014

Ninety percent of the world’s e-cigarettes are made in China. Experts warn, however, that poorly manufactured devices can vaporize heavy metals and carcinogens alongside the nicotine.

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Innovative planning and new-type urbanization in China: The case of Wuxi city in Jiangsu province

Wenwei Zhu, Prosper Bernard Jr., Michel Plaisent, James Ming-Hsun Chiang (2014), Innovative planning and new-type urbanization in China: The case of Wuxi city in Jiangsu province, Current Urban Studies, 2014, 2, 307-314  .

Abstract

Urbanization has been a transformative process in 21st century China. This paper seeks to ex- amine the process of urbanization in Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, specifically to identify the ways in which Wuxi City has engaged in new-type urbanization—an innovative pattern of urban devel- opment that seeks to integrate urban and rural development, achieve environmental sustainabil- ity, and provide for the wellbeing of an urbanized citizenry. The City’s model has potentially im- portant reference value for other cities and towns in developed areas of China that are in the process of fashioning their own innovative pattern of urbanization.

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Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Panhandling and the contestation of public space in Guangzhou

Ryanne Flock1 (2014), « Panhandling and the Contestation of Public Space in Guangzhou », China Perspectives [Online], 2014/2 | 2014, Online since 01 June 2014, connection on 17 December 2014. URL : http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/6449

Abstract

Urban public space is a product of contestations by various actors. This paper focuses on the conflict between local level government and beggars to address the questions: How and why do government actors refuse or allow beggars access to public space? How and why do beggars appropriate public space to receive alms and adapt their strategies? How does this contestation contribute to the trends of urban public space in today’s China? Taking the Southern metropolis of Guangzhou as a case study, I argue that beggars contest expulsion from public space through begging performances. Rising barriers of public space require higher investment in these performances, taking even more resources from the panhandling poor. The trends of public order are not unidirectional, however. Beggars navigate between several contextual borders composed by China’s religious renaissance; the discourse on deserving, undeserving, and dangerous beggars; and the moral legitimacy of the government versus the imagination of a successful, “modern,” and “civilised” city. This conflict shows the everyday production of “spaces of representation” by government actors on the micro level where economic incentives merge with aspirations for political prestige.

 More information on the author

  1. Ryanne Flock is a PhD candidate at Freie Universität Berlin.Freie Universität Berlin, East Asian Institute, Ehrenbergstr. 26-28, 14195 Berlin, Germany (flock.ry@googlemail.com). []

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Warmer relations between Washington and Beijing on climate change

After European Union leaders’ decision to reduce greenhouse gases by at least 40% by 2030, US and China also agreed to take actions to limit greenhouse gases.

These decisions are very ambitious, and could literally save the world from pollution and climate change, but as noted by Rebecca Leber1, there might be some obstacles to their implementation.

Both countries have a lot of work ahead to get to these targets.

  1. LEBER, R., 2014. The World has waited for the U.S. and China to ake action on climate change. They just did, The New Republic, November 12, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/120242/us-and-china-reach-agreement-climate-change []

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE – Nottingham Trent University)

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Role of users in the developing eco-innovation

Nathalie Lazaric, Jun Jin, Ali Douai, Cecile Ayerbe (2014). Role of users in the developing
eco-innovation:  comparative case research in China and France. Economies et societes,
developpement, croissance et progrès – Presses de l’ISMEA – Paris, Serie Dynamique
technologique et Organisation (N 3), pp.455-476.
This article proposes a model of eco-innovation that emphasizes the role of users and regulation in the development and diffusion of eco-innovationproducts, by comparing the diffusion of two e-bike companies, CEP and Lvyan, from China and France.
These cases show that diffusion of eco-innovation in China and France is strongly linked to the institutional context and specific consumer needs, highlighting the importance of involving users in the development and diffusion of eco-innovation in order to satisfy market demand, and increase profit and competitiveness in niche markets. It also shows that, to achieve a comprehensive picture, institutions and policy makers should adopt a coevolutionary approach to regulation that includes consideration of technology, uses and practices.
The case of CEP reveals that regulation appropriate to the market fosterscompanies‟eco-innovation;compared to the case of Lvyan which shows that irrelevant regulation can become a barrier to the diffusion of eco-innovations such as the e-bikes.
The superior„ snob effects‟ of the French market are discussed and compared with the„ bandwagons effects‟ noted in the Chinese market.

 Full text on the French multi-discciplinary open access archive HAL

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Chinese migrant workers’ attitudes toward risks, strategic uncertainty, and competitivenesss

Li Hao Daniel Houser Lei Mao, Marie Claire Villeval  (2014), A field study of Chinese migrant workers’ attitudes toward risks, strategic uncertainty, and competitiveness,

Using a field experiment in China, we study whether migration status is correlated with attitudes toward risk, ambiguity, and competitiveness. Our subjects include migrants and non-migrants. We find that, migrants exhibit no differences from non-migrants in risk and ambiguity preferences elicited using pairs of lotteries ; however, migrants are significantly more likely to enter competition in the presence of strategic uncertainty when they expect competitive entries from others. Our results suggest that migration may be driven more by a stronger belief in one’s ability to succeed in an uncertain and competitive environment than by risk attitudes under state uncertainty.

Full text on the French multi-discciplinary open access archive HAL

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Utilities networks and urban fabric in China: the quest for an environmentalization in the framework of an accelerated development

Thesis defense of Rémi Curien1: Services essentiels en réseaux et fabrique urbaine en Chine : la   quête d’une environnementalisation dans le cadre d’un développement accéléré – Enquêtes à Shanghai, Suzhou et Tianjin (Utilities networks and urban fabric in China: the quest for an environmentalization in the framework of an accelerated development – Field surveys in Shanghai, Suzhou and Tianjin)

Members of the Jury

  • Sabine Barles, Professor of urban planning, Université Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne, president of the thesis committee.
  • Catherine Chevauché, Deputy Director of Research, Innovation and Sustainable Development at Safege, Suez Environnement, examiner.
  • Olivier Coutard, CNRS Research Director, LATTS, supervisor.
  • François Gipouloux, CNRS Research Director, UMR 8173 Chine, Corée, Japon (EHESS), referee.
  • Dominique Lorrain, CNRS Research Director, LATTS, examiner.
  • Franck Scherrer, Professor of geography and urban planning, Université de Montréal, referee.
  • Zou Huan, Professor of architecture and urban planning, Tsinghua University, examiner.

Abstract

Environmentalising the country’s development without significantly changing the pace of economic and urban growth: such is the difficult challenge set since 2006 by the Chinese authorities to deal with the increasing pressure bearing on natural environment and major environmental damage caused by accelerated development. China is probably the only country in the world where a goal of energy and environmental sobriety in the provision of urban utilities (water, waste-water, electricity, gas, heating, waste management) is so vigorously sought in circular economy policies, more specifically in eco-industrial parks and eco-cities projects, in the context of a strong and extended economic and urban development. Based on an investigation conducted in Shanghai, Suzhou and Tianjin, three cities at the forefront of transformations in China, and combined with a study of the national framework and the overall situation in the country, the thesis aims to analyze the substance and the forms of the urban utilities’ environmentlisation implemented in China. Our research shows that the ambitious Chinese policies of urban utilities’ environmentalisation leads in the cities to a partial improvement in the environmental quality of their provision, while the horizon of sobriety and circular economy remains distant. The prevalence of the developmentalist urban fabric stands structurally in the way of the emergence of resources reuse-oriented alternative technical systems to conventional networks. The urban utilities’ environmentalisation path taken in the Chinese cities is too technocentric and too exogenous to urban planning for the environmentalisation and especially the quest for sobriety to be more substantial. Operationally, these findings encourage a greater integration of utilities’ provision issues in the planning and development of cities, both in China and beyond the Chinese context.

Date

November, 21, 2014, at 2:30 pm

Location

Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (Cité Descartes, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, 77455 Champs-sur-Marne, France) – Amphithéâtre Navier

If you wish to attend  this event, please contact Rémi Curien (remi.curien@enpc.fr).

  1. ENPC-CNRS-UPEM,  http://www.latts.fr/remi-curien []

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE – Nottingham Trent University)

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Residence choice decisions

Wu, N. and Zhao, S.(2014)1. “Impact of transportation convenience, housing affordability, location, and schooling in residence choice decisions.” Journal of Urban Planning Development , 10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000258 , 05014028.

This paper aims to investigate the impacts of housing affordability, which can be denoted as the ratio of housing price (HP) and monthly expense per person (EXP), travel time to the city center, distance to a subway station, and schooling on residents’ apartments purchasing behavior in Dalian, China. The paper employed a logit model based on stated preference (SP) data. Results show that travel time to the city center (by subway) and housing affordability have negative effects on individual utility. This reveals that residents tend to buy apartments near the city center based on their income. Considering a series of negative external factors, distance to a subway station is positive to utility. Moreover, the willingness for residents to pay for different attributes varies according to their levels of EXP. At last the elasticity of different variables is analyzed and 180 additional data points are used to test the model. The testing result shows that the model can satisfy the basic requirement.

Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000258

  1. Na Wu, Ph.D. Candidate,  Zhao, S., Professor and Dean, School of Transportation and Logistics, Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian []

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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The Oxford Companion to the Economics of China

Shenggen Fan, S M Ravi Kanbur, Shang-Jin Wei, Xiaobo Zhang (2014). The Oxford companion to the economics of China.(2014),  The Oxford Companion to the Economics of China, 656 p., 33 Figures, 8 Tables. Also available as ebook.

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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What makes eco-transformation of industrial parks take off in China?

Chang Yu,  (2014), What makes eco-transformation of industrial parks take off in China? Journal of Industrial Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12185 Restricted Access.

This article focuses on the effects of policy instruments for developing viable eco-industrial parks (EIPs) in China. We analyzed the root of China’s national EIP program and inventoried the general instruments available to local authorities to shape and promote eco-industrial development. Empirical research conducted in Tianjin Economic-technological Development Area and Dalian Development Area led to the activities and actions conducted by local authorities. A quantitative method, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, was adopted to reveal the effects of policy instruments for comparative analysis. We conclude that the planned EIP model is useful in the early stage of EIP development, and, subsequently, it should be combined with a facilitated model to achieve long-term goals for eco-transformation. To this end, the policy package of economic, regulatory, and voluntary instruments should be integrated and tailored in alignment with the local situation.

Read also

Chang Yu (2014), Eco-transformation of industrial parks in China, Dissertation. 1 doi:10.4233/uuid:f10443ff-78b9-4640-9d31-dbdf65f8e99

During the past three decades, China has achieved impressive economic development. However, the pollution and resource depletion that accompanied China’s rapid industrialization have led to severe environmental issues, such as ecosystem degradation, groundwater contamination and smog, which have turned into visible crises.

In China, industrial parks were initiated in the 1980s, aiming to attract foreign investment and to increase export. Most of these were manufacturing bases which lacked environmental planning or management. In these early stages, these parks were mainly dominated by manufacturing companies who process materials into products with low added-value. Local authorities sought sheer GDP growth without considering energy efficiency or environmental cost. While these industrial parks have immensely contributed to China’s GDP, the scale, intensity and arrangement of these industrial activities have jeopardized the ecological security and health of local communities. It is therefore imperative to transform China’s industrial parks and apply the principles of eco-industrial parks (EIPs).

This thesis aims to improve the understanding of the features of an EIP system and its mechanisms, in order to provide tailored policy intervention. Our central research question has been: How can industrial parks be eco-transformed in China? To answer this central research question, we have addressed a set of sub questions that have guided our theoretical and empirical research. These include: 1) How has the research on EIP evolved? 2) What elements are required to frame the analysis of EIP? 3) How can the key activities that influence changes of EIP system be structured? How can the process of the system development be tracked over time? 4) What policy instruments can stimulate the emergence of viable EIPs in China? How can the effects of policy instruments be evaluated? 5) What is the future of mature EIPs?

We first create a systemic and quantitative image of the evolution of this research field through bibliometric and network analysis. Furthermore, an analytical framework is established by the theoretical synthesis of EIP’s features from system and evolutionary perspectives, and the frameworks of institutional analysis. The framework allows analysts to structure empirical research and systematically analyze an EIP’s development, aiming at generating insights to diagnose current EIP policies or make new ones. Moreover, we conduct empirical research in three Chinese EIPs: Tianjin Economic-technological Development Area, Dalian Development Area, and Suzhou Industrial Park. We adopt several methods to evaluate the system performance steered by different policy instruments, which provides insights of the cause-and-effect mechanisms of EIP development. We believe that the lessons learned from these cases can demonstrate a profile of China’s EIP development.

Full text available on Deft Institutional Repository

  1. Chang Yu, Master of Science in Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, PHD Delft University of Technology []

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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China-EU green cooperation

Etienne Reuter; Jing Men (2014), China-EU green cooperation , Singapore ; Hackensack, NJ : World Scientific, 2014.

This book offers a selection of views from Chinese and European experts and scholars on the most pressing environmental challenges — air quality, global warming, climate change, energy security, urbanisation — faced by Europe and China in 2013. The contributors also discuss possibilities of technical cooperation between the two sides on remedies for the domestic scene as well as contributions to international negotiations. These problems top the agenda of the new leadership in China and also feature prominently on the EU-China agenda for EU’s efforts to mitigate climate change.This book offers a selection of views from Chinese and European experts and scholars on the most pressing environmental challenges — air quality, global warming, climate change, energy security, urbanisation — faced by Europe and China in 2013.

Sample Chapter(s)

Foreword (41 KB)
Introduction (83 KB)
Chapter 1: EU-China Cooperation on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Mitigation Towards a Potential International Emission Trading Scheme (112 KB)

Contents:

Climate Change

  • EU–China Cooperation on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Mitigation Towards a Potential International Emission Trading Scheme (Beatriz Perez de las Heras)
  • Cooperation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading in EU–China Climate Diplomacy (Katja Biedenkopf and Diarmuid Torney)
  • The European Union’s Structural Foreign Policy: A Case Study on the EU–China Aviation ETS Dispute (Yu Weiye)
  • Upholding the EU’s Climate Change Commitments (Men Jing and Veronika Orbetsova)
  • A Reporter’s Narrative: China’s Learning Curve on Climate Change (Fu Jing)

Low Carbon Economy

  • Low Carbon Policies and the Management of EU–China Trade Relations (Coraline Goron)
  • Restructuring China’s Thermal Power Generation: A Possible Mechanism for China’s CO2 Emission Mitigation (Li Jinshan, He Yinan and Hu Fengqiao)
  • EU–China Cooperation on Low Carbon Economy (Li Jun)
  • Unleashing the “Green Cat”? The Promotion of Renewable Energy in China — Lessons from the Solar Industry (Cora Jungbluth)

Urbanization and Quality of Life

  • Water Problems in China (He Nong)
  • Food Safety: A Challenge for EU–China Cooperation (Rodolphe de Borchgrave)
  • NGOs in the EU–China Environmental Diplomacy (Malte Philipp Kaeding and Heidi Ningkang Wang)
  • Financial Innovation in Sustainable Cities: A Suggestion for the EU and China? (Laurent Beduneau-Wang)
  • Hong Kong: An Extreme Case in Dense Urban Living (Christine Loh)
  • Sustainability-oriented Low-carbon Development of Shanghai (Guo Ru and Song Lilei)
  • The Green Urbanization: The Local Vision under the Globalization: A Comparative Analysis between French and Chinese Sustainable Policy and Approaches (Yu Wang-Vedrine)
  • EU–China Cooperation in Agriculture: An Example: The Trade in Apples (Lei Lei)

Concluding Thoughts

  • The Green Way Forward (Isabel Hilton)

Website : http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/9001#t=aboutBook

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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