Tag Archives: Carbon

Urban forest in Shenyang

Green park in Shaoxing, Goulard SébastienThe Tijuca forest in the city of Rio de Janeiro is claimed to be the largest urban forest in the world. Maybe challengers to this title will come from China?

In a paper published in 2011, Liu Changfu and Li Xiaoma bring to light the importance of urban forests in carbon storage using the case of Shenyang1.

In Europe, some urban forests are several centuries old. They were first preserved to be used as gaming reserves for the nobility, and they then gained strategic and recreational purposes.

Urban forests also play a role in improving environment of cities. Several reforestation programs have been implemented with this objective; a notable example is the transformation of post-industrial sites into urban forests in Germany’s Ruhr.

Shenyang is a very industrial (and polluted) city of Northeast China where authorities have started to develop reforestation programmes. This article shows that this initiative needs to be continued.

The authors used satellite images of Shenyang and its surrounding to distinguish planted areas and the different varieties of trees, and then calculated the amount of carbon stored in several areas. In Shenyang, the carbon stored by the urban forests represents more than 3% of carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. As argued by the authors, more efforts can be pursued to increase the sire of urban forests, but these forests need to be better managed so that trees grow healthy and store more carbon. Forest managers should also pay more attention in planting native trees, which seem to be more efficient than other varieties, and need to preserve primitive forests when possible.

We can also state that protecting and managing forests should be an integral part of urban planning, global approach needs to be adopted.

  1. Liu Changfa & Li, Xiaoma (2011). Carbon storage and sequestration by urban forests in Shenyang, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol 11 (2), pp. 121-128 []

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE - Nottingham Trent University)

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Accelerating household access to clean cooking and heating

Working paper of the World Bank. 2013. China – Accelerating household access to clean cooking and heating. East Asia and Pacific clean stove initiative series. Washington DC ; World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/09/18451502/china-accelerating-household-access-clean-cooking-heating


The China Clean Stove Initiative (CSI), a collaborative effort of the Chinese government and the World Bank, aims to scale up access to clean cooking and heating stoves for poor, primarily rural households, who are likely to continue using solid fuels beyond 2030. More than half of China’s population still relies on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating; many of these households, located mainly in rural areas, are likely to continue using solid fuels in the near future. Switching to modern energy alternatives would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking and heating solutions and should be encouraged; yet such fuels are more expensive than solid fuels, requiring more costly stoves and delivery infrastructure. Effective strategies to scale up the dissemination of clean burning, fuel-efficient stoves for household cooking and heating can mitigate the health hazards associated with the burning of solid fuels. It is estimated that Household Air Pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use results in more than a million premature deaths each year in China. Scaled-up access to clean and efficient stoves is consistent with China’s strategy to promote energy conservation, reduced carbon emissions, and green energy in villages. The China CSI comprises four phases: 1) initial stocktaking and development of the implementation strategy; 2) institutional strengthening, capacity building, and piloting of the strategy; 3) scaled-up program implementation; and 4) evaluation and dissemination of lessons learned. This report will serve as a knowledge base and roadmap to encourage and engage all interested parties in working together on this important agenda. The initial CSI stocktaking exercise calls for a comprehensive strategy comprising institutional strengthening and building of an enabling policy and regulatory environment, market and business development, and stimulation of household demand, supported by an innovative, results based financing approach.

Official PDF in English, 84 p.

Report also available in Chinese, 72 p.

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Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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