Category Archives: Li Shantong

Working paper UrbaChina no.4 now online

The UrbaChina team is pleased to announce the publication of the 4th UrbaChina working paper entitled “Central-local authority relationships and the institutional process of city creation“, edited by Ai Chi-han (Nanfang College, Sun Yat-sen University), Miguel Elosua (EHESS) and prof. Li Shantong (DRC).

As one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, China is experiencing the largest scale of urbanisation in human history. More and more land is required to support this massive urbanisation. However, rural land acquisition and compensation to the changes in farmers’ household registration (hukou) are complex issues in the process of urbanisation under the dual land tenure between city and rural areas in China. Furthermore, local government has been under increasing financial pressure after the tax sharing system was implemented in 1994. To raise funds and develop urban construction, various cities have undertaken different strategies of land development during their on-going urbanisation, which is also discussed in this study. Urbanisation is a process of expanding urban space with a view to develop the land efficiently. Therefore, the objective of this study is to introduce the dual land system in China, the evolution of farmers’ collective land ownership, and the process of governmental land acquisition. Subsequently, we will examine the case of the case of Shanghai Pudong New Area, which develops land with an insufficient financial support and its corresponding solutions. Finally, the authors highlight problems in the process of land acquisition and land development.

The UrbaChina working paper no.4 is now available on open access at the hal-FP7 UrbaChina paper collection.

Recommended citation: Ai, C., Elosua, M., & Li, Shantong. (2014). Central-local authority relationships and the institutional process of city creation (UrbaChina Working Paper no.4 October 2014). Paris: CNRS. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01076092v1

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE – Nottingham Trent University)

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UrbaChina working paper series launched

The UrbaChina consortium has prepared a collection of working papers available on open access at Hal (the French national open archive for academic documents). Our working paper series disseminates research relevant to the different aspects of the urbanisation in China.

By publishing these working papers, the UrbaChina consortium hopes to stimulate discussion and contribute to the advancement of urban studies in China.

The first working paper is entitled “Urbanisation in China: The impact of the tax-sharing system and the definitions of new strategies“. 

This working paper was edited by five members of UrbaChina: Miguel Elosua (CNRS), François Gipouloux (CNRS), Sébastien Goulard (CNRS), Li Shantong (DRC) and Ni Pengfei (CASS-IFTE)

The working paper no.1 examines the evolution of Chinese cities and the challenges they are currently facing. It aims to identify possible patterns of urbanisation in the next forty years.
The first part analyses the transformation of Chinese cities as a consequence of the economic policies implemented within the country. The authors argue that the economic reform has accelerated China’s urbanisation. Other factors of this massive urbanisation include the improvement of transport infrastructures and the transformation of China’s industries.
The reform of the tax system between central and local authorities in 1994 is also examined, and its consequences on urbanisation, and its limitations.
Based on this analysis, the second part introduces the possible strategies China may adopt for the development of its cities. The objective of these policies will be mainly to control the path of urbanisation to prevent the emergence of super large city and encourage the creation of city networks. Future urban policies will also need to tackle such issues as rural flight and environment protection.

ELOSUA, M., GIPOULOUX, F., GOULARD, S., LI, S. and NI, P. (2013) Urbanisation in China: The impact of the tax-sharing system and the definitions of new strategies. UrbaChina working paper no.1 November 2013 http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00903218

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE – Nottingham Trent University)

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How rural financial reform gives impetus to Chinese urbanisation?

对于农村金融改革,人民银行副行长潘功胜认为:

在农村金融机构改革方面,从2003年开始,国家启动了对农村信用社的改革,但对于农村金融的发展,仍有这几点需要关注:第一,要发展微型金融组织,这点上金融监管机构达成了共识。这几年来各种各样的微型金融组织发展速度比较快,也存在不少问题。例如,如何吸引民间资本参与中国微型金融的发展。同时,这些微型金融机构还有一种倾向,就是规模稍大一点后,就从县里面搬到城里面,因此必须限制其经营范围。

第二,金融产品和服务创新。不同农户对金融产品和服务的需求不一样,主要分为基本金融服务、小额信贷和投资理财。这些年来,金融监管部门和金融机构在这个方面做了很多的工作,也取得了很大的进展。

第 三,完善农村金融发展的政策体系和生态环境。近年来,无论是人们银行还是银监会还是财政部,在这方面也出台了不少政策,但是这些政策需要 进行评估,而且有些政策需要形成一个长期化的制度化政策安排来稳定市场的预期。在完善农村金融生态系统建设方面,应在农村地区多成立一些有政府背景的融资 担保公司。

第四,完善农村金融监管体系。如今在农村地区金融机构的数量和品种已经很多,各种各样的农村金融业务活跃度大幅度提升,其中存在不少违规的经营活动。县域地区的金融监管力量薄弱,形成了监管空白,这是个很大的问题。

第五,建立农村金融发展基金。通过政府直接提供金融服务,提供必要的政策支持和建立农村金融发展基金可以形成普惠制的金融服务。

农业银行行长张云认为:

虽然在农村金融体系有机组成部分当中,真正接地气、体现规模化的金融机构对应一个小规模的生产主体的情况,小规模金融机构和小贷公司具有绝 对的规模匹配优势。但是,从实践过程来看,微小金融机构在发展过程当中,并没有必要和大型金融机构的发展对立起来,它们彼此之间都有各自优势。

比如农村支付体系的建设,对于在农村建立一个比较基础的农村支付体系,区域性的小微金融机构是不具备优势的。此外,农行运用自身科技实力,利用本行产品不断扩大农行的金融覆盖面和影响力,这是大金融机构另外一个优势。

小型金融机构发展过程中有一个重要的缺陷,就是缺乏相应的资金来源。很多小型金融机构不能吸收存款,使得资金来源存在一定问题。如今,农行找到一种资产配置方式,在实现自身商业化需求的同时,也支持了小型金融机构的发展。

在浙江,农行现在已经对小型金融机构实现批发性的开展金融业务,比如农行把小额信贷公司作为一个批发性的对象,对其授信,也开展其他批发性金融业务,在这个过程中实现大行与小型金融机构的相互支持、相互服务,而又同时体现差异化竞争。

中央农村工作领导小组办公室主任陈锡文认为:

在城镇化快速推进下,首先必须关注粮食和其他重要农产品数量安全问题。因 为随着城镇化的推进,大量农民变成居民,整个国民的饮食结构、饮食质量都在明显提高,对于我国粮食供给和其他重要农产品供给提出了越来越高的要求。那我国 目前农业是否能支撑整个供给,这是一个很大的问题。所以,下一步要认真考虑哪些是应当国内确保的,哪些是应该通过国际市场、国际资源争取的。同时作为农业大国,我们还要加快发展现 代农业,这就对金融支持现代农业发展方面提出新的需求。

其次,大量农民进入城镇,他们如何留在城镇转为市民,是一个棘手的问题。要想让农民工真正转为市民,必须解决好四大问题:第一,就业。 由于国有部门就业机会有限,因此新增的就业只能靠非国有经济和中小、微小企业创造更多的就业机会,而这就要鼓励非国有企业和中小企业、微小企业发展。第 二,住房。这个问题光靠财政是解决不了的,金融业应该认真思索怎么起作用,需要有一个符合国情的综合性的政策设计。第三,社保。这个问题不解决好,农民就 等于没有获得市民待遇。第四,子女就学。随着外来务工人员子女的增多,义务教育阶段资源怎么配置也是个大问题。如何解决农民工市民化,不是一个感情色彩很 浓的口号,这涉及到很多具体问题需要解决,在这个过程中也肯定会对金融提出更高的要求。

参考网站: http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/zxbg/ncjrgg/2013-06/10/content_1798071.htm

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Review and prospect of China s economy after accession to the WTO ten years

Publication of Li Shantong 李善同, Wu Sanmang 吴三忙, He jianwu 何建武, Liu Ming 刘明, “ Review and prospect of China’s economy after accession to the WTO ten years ”, Beijing ligong daxue xuebao, vol.14 n°3. The full text of the article is available on the CNKI.

China entered into the World Trade Organization on December 11, 2001. Ten years have passed. The paper systematically analyzes the achievements of China’s economic development after accession to the WTO. It argues that it is important to promote the effective use of both domestic and international market after accession to the WTO. It is useful to promote the comparative advantages of the elements of cost after accession to the WTO. At the same time, accession to the WTO promoted China’s reform and opening up. The paper also looks into the future of China’s economic development in the next decade. The paper pointed out that there is still the driving force to promote China’s sustained and rapid economic growth. However, compared to the past decade, the international environment China will face is going to be more complex and more uncertain in the next decade.

Li Shantong’s webpage (In Chinese)

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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