Category Archives: Ai Chi-Han

Land expropriation in China

revue_fonciere_2We are pleased to announce that Michel Prouzet, member of the UrbaChina stakeholder committee and Ai Chi-han (Sun Yat-sen University), partner of the UrbaChina team, have jointly published an article in a new French journal “Revue foncière“.

Their article entitled “Le concept d’utilité publique en République populaire de Chine (The concept of public interest in People’s Republic of China) examines the legal principle and use of land expropriation in China.

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE – Nottingham Trent University)

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Working paper UrbaChina no.4 now online

The UrbaChina team is pleased to announce the publication of the 4th UrbaChina working paper entitled “Central-local authority relationships and the institutional process of city creation“, edited by Ai Chi-han (Nanfang College, Sun Yat-sen University), Miguel Elosua (EHESS) and prof. Li Shantong (DRC).

As one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, China is experiencing the largest scale of urbanisation in human history. More and more land is required to support this massive urbanisation. However, rural land acquisition and compensation to the changes in farmers’ household registration (hukou) are complex issues in the process of urbanisation under the dual land tenure between city and rural areas in China. Furthermore, local government has been under increasing financial pressure after the tax sharing system was implemented in 1994. To raise funds and develop urban construction, various cities have undertaken different strategies of land development during their on-going urbanisation, which is also discussed in this study. Urbanisation is a process of expanding urban space with a view to develop the land efficiently. Therefore, the objective of this study is to introduce the dual land system in China, the evolution of farmers’ collective land ownership, and the process of governmental land acquisition. Subsequently, we will examine the case of the case of Shanghai Pudong New Area, which develops land with an insufficient financial support and its corresponding solutions. Finally, the authors highlight problems in the process of land acquisition and land development.

The UrbaChina working paper no.4 is now available on open access at the hal-FP7 UrbaChina paper collection.

Recommended citation: Ai, C., Elosua, M., & Li, Shantong. (2014). Central-local authority relationships and the institutional process of city creation (UrbaChina Working Paper no.4 October 2014). Paris: CNRS. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01076092v1

Sebastien Goulard

Ph.D. in political science (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in social sciences (EHESS, Paris); M.A. in international relations (IRIS, Paris), B.A. (Hons) in international political studies (ESE – Nottingham Trent University)

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Annual report on the health development of China’s new urbanization

下载The 2014 annual report on the health development of China’s new urbanization was published on may 2014. There are four sections in this report, including the general report, the overview researches, the monographic studies, and the case studies. This report gives an in-depth analysis and investigates these following major issues: evaluation system for urbanization and the status quo of China’s urbanization; new choices for new urbanization; spatial distribution; industrial upgrading; labor and employment; the changes of migrant workers; urban planning and urban governance; social construction and equalization of basic public services; ecological construction and carrying capacity of cities; urban and rural development, and institutional innovation.

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Signal Tree

Travelling in China, you may see a particularly tall tree on a mountain or in a park; its colour is similar to other trees around it. But when you move and look closer and touch this tree, the texture does not feels like tree bark but a plastic surface. It is actually a signal tree, the telecom operators’ idea to preserve the natural landscape. So, signal towers are built in the shape of a tree. This is a construction unique to urban development in China.

signal tree

Image source:  gaomin.t.sohu.com

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Pickle Index of China’s urbanisation

榨菜The Pickle index was founded in 2013 by an official of the National Development and Reform Commission. The creator of this index indicated that measuring and observing the sale number of pickles in different provinces can help understand the moving trends of migrant workers. The Pickle index then became an unofficial way to observe population movements in China.

That official found that from 2007 through 2011, the number of pickle sales in Southern China declined from around 50% to 30%. This showed the fast population outflow in Southern China. It was also observed that the sale number increased in Central China by 8%, in the Central Plain region by 3% and in the Northwest region by 2%. These numbers fit with the 2012 annual monitoring report on the observation of migrant workers, which was released by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China in May 2013.

The Pickle index is an intriguing way to decipher the movements of the migrant worker population. Its findings were discussed widely in China.

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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“Beauty of China and picturesque countryside” photo competition

A photo competition is being held by the China News Photography Association, the Guangdong Branch of Xinhua News Agency, Xiqiao Town and Nanhai District Committeeon the theme of “Beauty of China and Picturesque Countryside”. While the Chinese government is promoting urbanisation,thiscompetition aims to showcasetheimpact urbanisationhason the natural environment, on Chinese people’s everyday lives, on culture, and on people’s spiritual side.

Submission date: from 18 July 2014 to 30 September 2014

Final assessment: early October 2014

Official Website (http://www.gd.xinhuanet.com/mlxc/)

 contryside

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Chinadialogue

Chinadialogue (https://www.chinadialogue.net/) was launched on 3 July 2006 by an independent, non-profit organisation based in London and Beijing. It is a completely bilingual website that focuses on environmental issues like climate change, pollution, and water and food security. A website worth exploring.

Chinadialogue

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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People’s Daily on how to achieve a win-win between China’s urbanisation and environmental protection

1记者:在新型城镇化发展战略中,加强环境保护有何重大意义?

吴晓青:在新型城镇化这篇大文章中,环境保护既是基础,也是短板;既是新型城镇化建设的重点内容,也是新型城镇化的重要标准。环境资源是新型城镇化发展的基础。植物离不开阳光,鱼儿离不开水。城镇化要推进,人们的生产生活水平要提升,也离不开环境资源的支持。城镇化发展不能罔顾环境资源支持能力,无限制地索取、消耗、排放。

环境保护是新型城镇化的重点内容。习近平同志在今年党外人士座谈会上提出,要“积极稳妥推进城镇化……始终节约用地,保护生态环境”。国家新型城镇化 规划将“生态环境明显改善,空气质量逐步好转,饮用水安全得到保障”作为重要目标,并提出建立完善生态环境保护制度的任务措施。

环境保护是城镇化“新型”“健康”的重要标准。中央城镇化工作会议提出,要“依托现有山水脉络等独特风光,让城市融入大自然,让居民望得见山、看得见水、记得住乡愁”。可以说,环境保护做得好不好、环境质量好不好,是城镇化健康与否的重要标准。

记者:随着城镇化持续推进,中国环境保护面临哪些新的形势和挑战?

吴晓青:中国环境保护从城市起步,改革开放以来取得很大进展。但城镇化的持续深入推进,为环保工作带来了新挑战,环境治理难度在加大。例如,传统的大 气煤烟型污染尚未得到解决, PM2.5、臭氧等新型污染问题又接踵而至;水量性缺水问题尚未得到根治,水质性缺水问题又进一步凸显;生产领域的环境问题 居高不下,消费升级带来的新型环境问题日益突出;传统污染防治问题尚未彻底解决,市民对优质生态产品的需求与对环境健康的关注迅速上升,环境质量改善与市 民预期差距较大;等等。

当前,中国城镇化处于由中期向后期发展的阶段,环境压力将持续加大且短期内难以缓解。预计到2020年中国城镇化率将提升至60%,而城镇化率每提高 1个百分点,将增加城镇人口1300万左右。中国每年增加生活垃圾520万吨左右、生活污水11.5亿吨、多消耗8000万吨标煤。未来中小城镇发展还可 能导致不同区域、城市群间由隔离式的“碎片污染”转为“连片污染”,环境保护将面临更大挑战。

记者:在处理城镇化和环境保护的关系上,当前存在哪些突出问题?

吴晓青:主要是两个方面。

一是认识不足、供给滞后。一些地方对环境保护的认识和重视不够,存在重增长、轻环保的观念,生态环境要给经济发展、城镇建设让路,环境保护处于末端补救的被动局面;城镇环保治理投入处于旧账未还又添新账状态,环境治理速度滞后于城镇扩张与经济发展。

二是底线不明、约束不力。一些地方城镇化发展缺乏环境底线思维,缺乏对大自然的敬畏和尊重,山体、河流、湿地、森林、田园等被肆意占用,污染物无限制排放,环境退化甚至丧失功能,环境保护法规条例的约束性不够、不强、不硬,开发强度超过环境资源承载力上限。

记者:如何有效解决上述问题?

吴晓青:解决这些问题,需要深刻认识环境资源的基础性作用,补短板、强基础、提质量,努力将城镇的发展规模、发展方式、开发强度控制在生态系统和环境资源可承受的范围之内。 补短板,就是向污染宣战,出重拳,用重典,切实解决好关系群众健康的城镇灰霾、水体黑臭、土壤污染等重点问题,让长期超负荷的城镇内河水体、大气环境得到休养生息,大幅提高城镇生态产品、环境公共服务的供给水平。

强基础,就是以城市环境总体规划为依据,以城镇环境空间管控为重点,划定城镇生态保护红线,从源头构建生态功能维护和城镇建设协调发展格局,以环境承载定发展。

提质量,就是明确资源开发利用底线与主要污染物排放上限,将环境质量不降级作为发展的前提,确立城镇环境质量基线,维护城镇环境功能定位,提升新型城镇化的整体质量,建设美丽城镇。

记者:制度带有根本性、全局性、稳定性和长期性。实现城镇化与环保双赢,需要健全和完善哪些制度与政策?

吴晓青:积极应对城镇化进程中的环保挑战,应重视制度的保障作用、政策的限制和导向作用。当前,可以着重抓好以下两个方面的制度建设。

建立健全城市环境总体规划。城市环境总体规划是“十二五”环保规划提出的一项重要任务和基本制度。总体规划以提升环境服务功能为目标,以生态保护红 线、环境质量底线、环境资源上线等为抓手,为城市建设、资源开发和环境保护提供先导性、基础性依据。目前环境保护部组织的城市环境总体规划试点顺利,下一 步需要扩大试点范围、完善管理制度,提高执行力,加强与城市总规、土地总规及经济发展规划的衔接融合,力促多规融合、一张蓝图干到底。

建立健全城镇建设、重大产业发展、产业园区规划环评体系。将规划环评作为推进新型城镇化的重要手段,强化执行力度。严格控制“两高一资”、产能过剩行 业低水平建设,对环境质量不能满足功能区划要求的项目限制审批。完善城镇环境质量标准、污染物排放标准,推进重点行业清洁生产和提标改造。进一步推进落实 重点区域火电、钢铁、石化、水泥、有色、化工等六大行业以及燃煤锅炉执行大气污染物特别排放限值。强化城镇环境问题诊断、环境资源承载力监测评估等领域科 研突破。支持企业技术减排与环保技术创新,促进产业绿色化、清洁化。

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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New Pathways to Urbanisation

UN-conferenceThe United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the China Energy Fund Committee organised a high-level panel and luncheon on sustainable urbanisation in China on 8 July 2014. Members participated in a lively discussion about China’s new urbanisation.

China is experiencing an unprecedented pace of urbanisation. The implementation of new urbanisation policies will greatly increase market size and create economic growth, such as trade and investment for the entire world. In this process, China can contribute to global environmental protection and climate change. China’s experience can also enrich the global collective experience of urbanisation. Content of the panel discussion and the radio reports can be found at the following links: http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/chinese/archives/208530/.

 

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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China’s New Urbanisation Plan (2014-2020)

New urbanisation

China’s New Urbanisation Plan (2014-2020) is drawn up based on the reports of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening the Reform, China’s 12th Five-Year Plan, and the National Plan for Major Function-oriented Zones.

The Plan (2014-2020) sets forth a clear path for Chinese urbanisation, aims to improve comprehensively the quality of urbanisation, clarifies the main objectives and strategic tasks, and coordinates different institutional systems and policy innovation. This plan is a macroscopic, strategic, and fundamental guidebook for planning a sustainable Chinese urbanisation.

The content of the plan can be downloaded here.

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Peter Daniels 教授接受重庆青年报访问

访问连结: http://www.cqqnb.net/ebook/201421/11314.html

彼得·丹尼尔斯(Peter DanielsPeter)是英国伯明翰大学地理系教授。他的研究领域主要以经济地理为主,集中于中国城镇化之下服务业的发展。在谈起借鉴世界城镇化建设的经验时,彼得·丹尼尔斯认为,中国城镇化建设的发展和趋势与欧洲相比,具有较强的特殊性。

中国无太多闲置土地来城镇化

重庆青年报:谈起中国的城镇化,我们总常说要借鉴国际经验。但在您的研究中,有没有发现中国城镇化的特殊性在哪里?

彼得·丹尼尔斯:中国和世界其他地方的城镇化相比,最大的特殊性在于它发展过于迅速。如果和欧洲的城镇化速度相比,中国的城镇化快得太多了。这就会带来很多问题,最明显的例子就是城市里的空气污染。如何合理正确地控制增长速度,比如合理地控制机动车数量的增长,就显得尤为重要。

重庆青年报:城镇化过程中难免会有一些问题存在,中国在城镇化过程中也面临着很多压力,这些压力在欧洲国家是否也同样经历过?

彼得·丹尼尔斯:中国和欧洲相比,最大的障碍在于中国没有这么多闲置土地来进行城镇化。中国拥有的能够养活众多人口、进行农业生产的优质土地相当有限。而且相比欧洲,中国的人口密度过大。随着人们变得更为富裕,收入提高,人们就会想要到外面去闯一闯,这就会带来城市更大的压力。

服务业快速增长面临人才瓶颈

重庆青年报:现在各大城市都在大力发展服务业,以您来看,中国服务业还面临哪些问题?

彼得·丹尼尔斯:中国在这方面的压力在于如何优化经济结构来维持就业,让中国的制造业发挥更大的作用,以及走向现代化。我的研究领域就是服务业的发展。随着城镇化继续发展,对于服务业的要求就会增加很多。中国面临的一个问题是服务业的不合理增加。第三产业发展过于迅速,导致知识、技能、教育远远落后于城市人口的发展,这也是很大的挑战。

除此以外,中国不仅仅存在着城镇化,同时也包含着制造业的现代化。在城镇化和现代化同时到来的情况下,作为发展中的中国,该何去何从?因为制造业的现代化要求的是高质量的生产性服务。但相比而言,中国的三个产业发展不平衡,对于第三产业的“倚重”让第二产业发展滞后。

只有在提升第二产业的情况下,才能更好地发展其他产业,从而使产业整体得到全面发展。而了解、研究生产性服务在中国是如何产生和发展的,同时它是如何运转的,也显得非常重要。

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Chi-Han Ai’s thesis defense

Chi-Han Ai defended her thesis on 20 May 2014, which was entitled “The development of late arrival clusters in the integrated circuits industry: a study based on knowledge interactions – the cases of Hsinchu Scientific Park, Taïwan, and Zhangjiang High-Tech Park, Shanghai” (« Le développement de clusters arrivés tardivement dans l’industrie des circuits intégrés : une approche fondée sur les interactions des connaissances. Les cas du parc scientifique de Hsinchu, situé à Taïwan, et du parc de haute technologie de Zhangjiang, localisé à Shanghai»), and obtained the mention très honorable avec félicitations du jury. Read the summary of her thesis here (in French).1

Thesis supervisor

  •  François Gipouloux

Jury members

hanna

Guilhem Fabre, Xavier Richet, Ai Chi-han, François Gipouloux, Sébastien Lechevalier

 

  1. This article was translated by Aurélia Martin. []

Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d’études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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Industrial renovation and transformation of old Chongqing Dadukou district

One of the twelve downtown districts, Dadukou is located in the significant metropolitan area in Chongqing. In 1938, Hanyang Iron Factory, the predecessor of Chongqing Iron & Steel Group, was founded in Dadukou. The district developed rapidly ever since and is renown as the “Iron city” in the Southwest of China.

Nonetheless, the “Iron city” image has become less fitting in the face of the development of urbanisation nowadays. In 2011, Chongqing Iron & Steel Group moved their production chain, which helped transform the image of the district. In 2013, Dadukou district is the only place in Chongqing that is included in a national renovation plan proposed by the National Development and Reform Commission. The goal of the plan is to transform Dadukou into an “urbanised, social, economic” area.

The plan divides Dadukou into three areas:

  1. An old iron factory area (老重钢片区) of about 8100 acres is planned to become a new residential area.
  2. Diaoyu zui Peninsula area (钓鱼嘴半岛), an untapped land in Chongqing that will be turned into a recreation zone.
  3. Gold Aoshan – Small South Sea Area (金鳌山-小南海片区), a construction site of around 10 million square meters, which will be built into a tourism and recreational hotspot.

However, the transformation and renovation of this area will certainly have some difficulties, such as financing. Also, what is the reaction of citizens to this transformation and its relationship with the residents? How can this plan combine a strategic economic redevelopment of the area with the preservation of the place’s authenticity? These questions are worth investigating.

Dadoukou

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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Stop food waste

城镇化发展虽然可以带来经济进步与生活便利,但相对也会引起一些负面的效应,食物浪费问题就是其中之一,食物浪费可能对环境造成严重危害,也对城镇化的可持续发展理念相违背。欧盟委员会因此拍摄了一系列影片、政策行动,倡导民众不要浪费食物。

为了杜绝食物浪费问题,欧盟各国都有不同的倡议与行动,这些行动不只来自于政府,更多来自于非营利组织,社团,例如:

–       英国废物和资源行动计划 (Waste and Resources Action Programme)

废物和资源行动计划成立于2000年,是一个由政府资助的非盈利公司。包括:环境部、食品和农村事务部、苏格兰政府、威尔士政府、北爱尔兰行政部和欧盟。英国废物与资源行动计划旨在帮助人们无论是在家还是在工作,多回收少浪费,提高经济和环境效益。

相关连结 : http://www.wrap.org.uk/

–       丹麦停止食物浪费运动 (Stop Wasting Food movement Denmark)

该行动是由非盈利政府组织所创立,是为了通过活动、宣传、新闻、讨论、辩论、事件和其他信息渠道,提高公众的反食物浪费意识,减少消费者的食物浪费。停止食物浪费运动还鼓励消费者在当地采取行动,例如捐赠剩余食物给无家可归者。

相关连结 : http://www.stopspildafmad.dk/inenglish.html

–       欧盟优化食物使用避免浪费策略(Food Use for Social Innovation by Optimising Waste Prevention Strategies ; FUSIONS)项目

FUSIONS是一个为期四年的欧盟FP7研究项目,致力于到2020年减少欧盟50%的食物浪费和20%的食品链资源投入。该项目由来自于欧盟的21个研究伙伴共同推动,汇集了学者、知识机构、消费者组织和企业共同实现这一目标。该运动旨在减少食物蓝给,通过协调量化方法,发展强大的利益相关者网络,通过试点研究的社会创新提出解决方案,以及指导欧盟共同的反食物浪费政策。

相关连结 : http://www.thinkeatsave.org/ch/index.php/partners/our-partners

更多相关组织,请参见 : http://www.thinkeatsave.org/ch/index.php/partners/our-partners与欧盟委员会网页: http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/sustainability/eu_actions_en.htm

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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New book: Urbanisation-China and Europe

113958636Published by Gold Wall Press, Urbanisation: China and Europe includes the perspectives of both Chinese and European experts and scholars on the problems and challenges of China’s urbanisation. Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council, wrote the preface, indicating that urbanisation in China can learn some useful lessons from European cities, which have years of experience blazing a trail for sustainable development. This book discusses urbanisation problems from different angles, from regional resources and new models of local governance, to methods of addressing financial obstacles. It also elaborates an integrated approach for the widespread implementation of policies to address the various challenges in the development of a city.

 

 

 

Chi-Han Ai

Ph.D. candidate of EHESS ( École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris) focusing on regional economic development in China and Taiwan.

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