老舍笔下的重庆影像/The Image of Chongqing in Lao She’s Words

陈娟, 老舍笔下的重庆影像/The Image of Chongqing in Lao She’s Words, Thesis, 2013.

Abstract

老舍来到重庆时正值民族危亡之际,他以一个流徙文人的身份介入了重庆的“都城化”过程。重庆在抗 战时期的特殊身份使其从西南边缘城市过渡到时代强音响彻的中心地,她在老舍笔下有一个独特的城市影像,不仅是城市外观上多山多水多雾的特点,还有城市内部 的经济发展状况以及市民生活状态。老舍是一位重视隐喻的作家,他对重庆气候环境的描摹暗示了重庆山民的精神状态,以流亡为契机,老舍用文字呈现出了20世 纪三四十年代重庆的自然景观和城市人文风貌。老舍与重庆的交集中有重庆由“山城”到“都市”蜕变的轨迹:“催熟”的临时都城先天不足,流徙难民是城市的市 民主体,畸形的经济繁荣背后隐藏着因贫富悬殊引发的社会分化。虽然日本的“重庆大轰炸”战略让这座城市满目疮痍,轰炸造成的恐慌和死亡成了陪都市民无法磨 灭的精神伤痕,但是重庆像凤凰涅槃般一次又一次在战火中重生。文化机构和文化名人纷纷入渝,以“文协”为中心形成了一个重庆作家群,他们建构和演绎了陪都 文学。 以新中国成立为界,老舍前后期的重庆叙事里出现了城市影像的错位,包括对重庆“雾都”意象、国民政府以及陪都市民的表现。错位影像的实质是老舍文艺思想的 大转变,造成这种转变的因素有三:一是变换的时代背景,二是政权更迭引发的政治气候的变幻莫测,三是老舍创作心理的变化。因此,探究老舍离渝前后的心理变 化是解答历史疑问的切入点。关于老舍与重庆的研究,学界集中在对老舍此阶段的生平资料的整理上,对重庆作为“陪都”的特殊身份,只是史书里平淡客观的文字 记录。老舍笔下的重庆影像,是老舍文学世界的重要组成部分,也是这座城市的历史记忆,具有超越作家传记和地方志的意义。

Lao She arrived in Chongqing just during the anti-Japanese war, to step in the urbanization process of Chongqing by using his identity of an exiled scholar. During the anti-Japanese war, from a poor southwest city to a central city, Chongqing became a special image in Lao She’s words, including the mountainous, water-rich and foggy characteristic of the natural landscape and the economics and civic life. Lao She was a writer who attached importance to metaphor, his depicting of Chongqing’s climate and environment hinted the citizens’ psychosis. Forced to leave his hometown, Lao She presented a special image of Chongqing in 1930s and 1940s. The overlaps of Lao She and Chongqing showed the trail how the “mountain city” became a modern city. The “wartime capital” which had been forced to ripe was congenitally deficient, and a majority of the citizens were refugees. What was behind the malformed economic prosperity was the serious social differentiation. Although the “atom bomb” threw Chongqing in a chaotic condition and made citizens panic, Chongqing revived again and again like Phoenix Nirvana. Many cultural institutions and culture celebrity moved to Chongqing one after another, so a Writers Group around “Cultural Association of China” in Chongqing formed, which constructed and deduced the culture of the wartime capital. With the bound of China’s liberation, narration of Chongqing in Lao She’s early and late periods appeared city image dislocation which included the performance to Chongqing “foggy city” imagery, National Government and Wartime Capital citizens. Essence of image dislocation was the big change that Lao She had made in his literary thought. This change contained three factors. The first one was the transform of the background of the times. The second was the treacherous political climate caused by political changes. The third factor was the change of Lao She’s creative psychology. So, the entry point of solving historical questions was to probe into Lao She’s psychological changes before and after leaving Chongqing. With regard to studies about Lao She and Chongqing, educational circles usually committed to arranging Lao She’s life documents at that stage. As to Chongqing’s special identity of “Wartime Capital”, there was only some flat and objective written records in history books. Image of Chongqing described by Lao She was not only an important part of Lao She’s literary world, but also historical memory of this city, which had a great meaning of exceeding authors biography and local chronicles.

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Jacqueline Nivard

Jacqueline Nivard, Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine

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